The views of this article are the perspective of the author and may not be reflective of Confessions of the Professions.
Provide inpatient care predominantly in settings such as medical wards, acute care units, intensive care units, rehabilitation centers, or emergency rooms. Manage and coordinate patient care throughout treatment.
Sample of reported job titles:
Academic Hospitalist, Consultant Physician, Hospitalist, Hospitalist Medical Doctor (Hospitalist MD), MD (Medical Doctor), Physician
Diagnose, treat, or provide continuous care to hospital inpatients.
Prescribe medications or treatment regimens to hospital inpatients.
Order or interpret the results of tests such as laboratory tests and radiographs (x-rays).
Admit patients for hospital stays.
Conduct discharge planning and discharge patients.
Write patient discharge summaries and send them to primary care physicians.
Refer patients to medical specialists, social services, or other professionals as appropriate.
Direct, coordinate, or supervise the patient care activities of nursing or support staff.
Attend inpatient consultations in areas of specialty.
Communicate with patients’ primary care physicians upon admission, when treatment plans change, or at discharge to maintain continuity and quality of care.
Participate in continuing education activities to maintain or enhance knowledge and skills.
Direct or support quality improvement projects or safety programs.
Direct the operations of short stay or specialty units.
Train or supervise medical students, residents, or other health professionals.
Accounting software — Billing software
Electronic mail software — Email software
Information retrieval or search software — Medical reference software
Internet browser software — Web browser software
- Medical software — Epic Systems ; Medical decision support software; Medical procedure coding software; MEDITECH software ; 4 more
Mobile location based services software — Global positioning system GPS software
Voice recognition software
Hot Technologies are requirements frequently included in employer job postings.
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
Detailed Work Activities
Diagnose medical conditions.
Treat chronic diseases or disorders.
Analyze test data or images to inform diagnosis or treatment.
Order medical diagnostic or clinical tests.
Process healthcare paperwork.
Develop medical treatment plans.
Inform medical professionals regarding patient conditions and care.
Prepare reports summarizing patient diagnostic or care activities.
Refer patients to other healthcare practitioners or health resources.
Supervise patient care personnel.
Maintain medical or professional knowledge.
Coordinate safety or regulatory compliance activities.
Direct quality control activities.
Manage healthcare operations.
Face-to-Face Discussions — 100% responded “Every day.”
Telephone — 100% responded “Every day.”
Frequency of Decision Making — 92% responded “Every day.”
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 96% responded “Every day.”
Contact With Others — 88% responded “Constant contact with others.”
Duration of Typical Work Week — 92% responded “More than 40 hours.”
Exposed to Disease or Infections — 88% responded “Every day.”
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 75% responded “Very important results.”
Work With Work Group or Team — 76% responded “Extremely important.”
Electronic Mail — 72% responded “Every day.”
Freedom to Make Decisions — 71% responded “A lot of freedom.”
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 60% responded “Extremely important.”
Physical Proximity — 63% responded “Very close (near touching).”
Consequence of Error — 79% responded “Extremely serious.”
Time Pressure — 60% responded “Every day.”
Coordinate or Lead Others — 48% responded “Very important.”
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 48% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
Frequency of Conflict Situations — 48% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
Structured versus Unstructured Work — 40% responded “A lot of freedom.”
Deal With External Customers — 60% responded “Extremely important.”
Responsible for Others’ Health and Safety — 40% responded “Very high responsibility.”
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 40% responded “Very high responsibility.”
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 54% responded “Every day.”
Letters and Memos — 36% responded “Every day.”
Level of Competition — 28% responded “Highly competitive.”
Spend Time Sitting — 46% responded “About half the time.”
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — 25% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
Exposed to Contaminants — 29% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
Deal With Physically Aggressive People — 40% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 24% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
Public Speaking — 24% responded “Every day.”
- Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
- Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master’s degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
- Related Experience
- Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
- Job Training
- Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
- Job Zone Examples
- These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, physician assistants, and veterinarians.
- SVP Range
- Over 4 years of preparation (8.0 and above)
Training & Credentials
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions.
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
Time Management — Managing one’s own time and the time of others.
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others’ needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
Independence — Job requires developing one’s own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
Wages & Employment Trends
Median wage data for Physicians, All Other.
Employment data for Physicians, All Other; and Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric.
Industry data for Physicians, All Other; and Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric.
- Median wages (2021)
- $100.00+ hourly, $208,000+ annual
- State wages
- Local wages
- Employment (2020)
- 412,100 employees
- Projected growth (2020-2030)
Slower than average (1% to 5%)
- Projected job openings (2020-2030)
- State trends
- Top industries (2020)
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 wage data
external site and 2020-2030 employment projections
“Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
- State job openings
- Local job openings