The views of this article are the perspective of the author and may not be reflective of Confessions of the Professions.
Administer anesthesia, monitor patient’s vital signs, and oversee patient recovery from anesthesia. May assist anesthesiologists, surgeons, other physicians, or dentists. Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.
Sample of reported job titles:
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), Nurse Anesthetist, Staff Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (Staff CRNA), Staff Nurse Anesthetist
Manage patients’ airway or pulmonary status, using techniques such as endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, pharmacological support, respiratory therapy, and extubation.
Respond to emergency situations by providing airway management, administering emergency fluids or drugs, or using basic or advanced cardiac life support techniques.
Monitor patients’ responses, including skin color, pupil dilation, pulse, heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, ventilation, or urine output, using invasive and noninvasive techniques.
Select, order, or administer anesthetics, adjuvant drugs, accessory drugs, fluids or blood products as necessary.
Select, prepare, or use equipment, monitors, supplies, or drugs for the administration of anesthetics.
Assess patients’ medical histories to predict anesthesia response.
Perform or manage regional anesthetic techniques, such as local, spinal, epidural, caudal, nerve blocks and intravenous blocks.
Develop anesthesia care plans.
Obtain informed consent from patients for anesthesia procedures.
Prepare prescribed solutions and administer local, intravenous, spinal, or other anesthetics, following specified methods and procedures.
Perform pre-anesthetic screenings, including physical evaluations and patient interviews, and document results.
Calibrate and test anesthesia equipment.
Evaluate patients’ post-surgical or post-anesthesia responses, taking appropriate corrective actions or requesting consultation if complications occur.
Administer post-anesthesia medications or fluids to support patients’ cardiovascular systems.
Select and prescribe post-anesthesia medications or treatments to patients.
Perform or evaluate the results of diagnostic tests, such as radiographs (x-rays) and electrocardiograms (EKGs).
Select, order, or administer pre-anesthetic medications.
Insert peripheral or central intravenous catheters.
Insert arterial catheters or perform arterial punctures to obtain arterial blood samples.
Discharge patients from post-anesthesia care.
Read current literature, talk with colleagues, and participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in nursing.
Request anesthesia equipment repairs, adjustments, or safety tests.
Instruct nurses, residents, interns, students, or other staff on topics such as anesthetic techniques, pain management and emergency responses.
Disassemble and clean anesthesia equipment.
- Medical software — eClinicalWorks EHR software; GE Healthcare Centricity EMR; MEDITECH software ; Skyscape AnesthesiaDrugs; 16 more
Hot Technologies are requirements frequently included in employer job postings.
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
Detailed Work Activities
Implement advanced life support techniques.
Administer intravenous medications.
Treat medical emergencies.
Monitor patient conditions during treatments, procedures, or activities.
Administer blood or other fluids intravenously.
Prepare medications or medical solutions.
Prepare medical supplies or equipment for use.
Select medical equipment for addressing patient needs.
Administer anesthetics or sedatives to control pain.
Analyze patient data to determine patient needs or treatment goals.
Process healthcare paperwork.
Develop medical treatment plans.
Maintain medical equipment or instruments.
Collect medical information from patients, family members, or other medical professionals.
Examine medical instruments or equipment to ensure proper operation.
Examine patients to assess general physical condition.
Record patient medical histories.
Collaborate with healthcare professionals to plan or provide treatment.
Analyze test data or images to inform diagnosis or treatment.
Operate diagnostic imaging equipment.
Administer basic health care or medical treatments.
Operate diagnostic or therapeutic medical instruments or equipment.
Collect biological specimens from patients.
Maintain medical or professional knowledge.
Clean medical equipment or facilities.
Face-to-Face Discussions — 100% responded “Every day.”
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 100% responded “Every day.”
Exposed to Disease or Infections — 85% responded “Every day.”
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 96% responded “Every day.”
Work With Work Group or Team — 88% responded “Extremely important.”
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 81% responded “Extremely important.”
Consequence of Error — 81% responded “Extremely serious.”
Freedom to Make Decisions — 78% responded “A lot of freedom.”
Contact With Others — 85% responded “Constant contact with others.”
Exposed to Contaminants — 77% responded “Every day.”
Physical Proximity — 58% responded “Very close (near touching).”
Level of Competition — 54% responded “Extremely competitive.”
Responsible for Others’ Health and Safety — 63% responded “Very high responsibility.”
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 74% responded “Very important results.”
Structured versus Unstructured Work — 56% responded “A lot of freedom.”
Coordinate or Lead Others — 60% responded “Extremely important.”
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 59% responded “Every day.”
Telephone — 62% responded “Every day.”
Duration of Typical Work Week — 63% responded “More than 40 hours.”
Frequency of Decision Making — 65% responded “Every day.”
Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 58% responded “Extremely important.”
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 56% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
Time Pressure — 63% responded “Every day.”
Deal With External Customers — 52% responded “Extremely important.”
Electronic Mail — 44% responded “Every day.”
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — 41% responded “Every day.”
Exposed to Radiation — 59% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 42% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
Frequency of Conflict Situations — 41% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 31% responded “High responsibility.”
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — 30% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
Spend Time Standing — 60% responded “About half the time.”
Spend Time Sitting — 48% responded “About half the time.”
Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 33% responded “Less than half the time.”
- Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
- Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master’s degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
- Related Experience
- Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
- Job Training
- Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
- Job Zone Examples
- These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.
- SVP Range
- Over 4 years of preparation (8.0 and above)
Training & Credentials
- State training
- Local training
- State licenses
- Have a career path or location in mind? Visit Apprenticeship.gov
to find apprenticeship opportunities near you.
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions.
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
Time Management — Managing one’s own time and the time of others.
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others’ needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
Independence — Job requires developing one’s own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
Wages & Employment Trends
- Median wages (2021)
- $94.04 hourly, $195,610 annual
- State wages
- Local wages
- Employment (2020)
- 44,200 employees
- Projected growth (2020-2030)
Faster than average (10% to 15%)
- Projected job openings (2020-2030)
- State trends
- Top industries (2020)
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 wage data
and 2020-2030 employment projections
“Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Job Openings on the Web
- State job openings
- Local job openings