The views of this article are the perspective of the author and may not be reflective of Confessions of the Professions.
Sample of reported job titles:
Car Hop, Deli Clerk (Delicatessen Clerk), Deli Worker (Delicatessen Worker), Dietary Aide, Food Service Assistant, Food Service Worker, Prep Cook (Preparation Cook), Sandwich Artist, School Cafeteria Cook, Server
- Communicate with customers regarding orders, comments, and complaints.
- Accept payment from customers, and make change as necessary.
- Request and record customer orders, and compute bills using cash registers, multi counting machines, or pencil and paper.
- Prepare daily food items, and cook simple foods and beverages, such as sandwiches, salads, soups, pizza, or coffee, using proper safety precautions and sanitary measures.
- Clean and organize eating, service, and kitchen areas.
- Monitor and order supplies or food items and restock as necessary to maintain inventory.
- Serve customers in eating places that specialize in fast service and inexpensive carry-out food.
- Collect and return dirty dishes to the kitchen for washing.
- Wash dishes, glassware, and silverware after meals.
- Notify kitchen personnel of shortages or special orders.
- Relay food orders to cooks.
- Prepare and serve cold drinks, or frozen milk drinks or desserts, using drink-dispensing, milkshake, or frozen custard machines.
- Select food items from serving or storage areas and place them in dishes, on serving trays, or in take-out bags.
- Cook or reheat food items such as french fries.
- Perform personnel activities such as supervising and training employees.
- Distribute food to servers.
- Pack food, dishes, utensils, tablecloths, and accessories for transportation from catering or food preparation establishments to locations designated by customers.
- Arrange tables and decorations according to instructions.
- Serve food and beverages to guests at banquets or other social functions.
- Provide caterers with assistance in food preparation or service.
- Plan, prepare, and deliver meals to individuals with special dietary needs.
- Data base user interface and query software — Menu and nutrition database software
- Office suite software — Microsoft Office
- Point of sale POS software — Intuit QuickBooks Point of Sale; NCR Advanced Checkout Solution; NCR NeighborhoodPOS; The General Store (see all 6 examples)
- Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel
Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.
- Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
- Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
- English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
- Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
- Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
- Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions.
- Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
- Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
- Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
- Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
- Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
- Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
- Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
- Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
- Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
- Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
- Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
- Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
- Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
- Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
- Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
- Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
- Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
- Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
- Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
- Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
- Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
- Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
- Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
- Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
Detailed Work Activities
- Process customer bills or payments.
- Communicate with customers to resolve complaints or ensure satisfaction.
- Operate cash registers.
- Take customer orders.
- Cook foods.
- Clean food preparation areas, facilities, or equipment.
- Clean food service areas.
- Order materials, supplies, or equipment.
- Serve food or beverages.
- Clean tableware.
- Collect dirty dishes or other tableware.
- Move equipment, supplies or food to required locations.
- Communicate dining or order details to kitchen personnel.
- Prepare hot or cold beverages.
- Arrange food for serving.
- Package food or supplies.
- Arrange tables or dining areas.
- Assist chefs or caterers with food or drink preparation.
- Train food preparation or food service personnel.
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- Spend Time Standing — 99% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Contact With Others — 80% responded “Constant contact with others.”
- Face-to-Face Discussions — 80% responded “Every day.”
- Work With Work Group or Team — 71% responded “Extremely important.”
- Deal With External Customers — 55% responded “Extremely important.”
- Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 51% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 49% responded “Extremely important.”
- Physical Proximity — 53% responded “Moderately close (at arm’s length).”
- Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 68% responded “Every day.”
- Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 58% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 59% responded “Every day.”
- Coordinate or Lead Others — 38% responded “Extremely important.”
- Spend Time Walking and Running — 51% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
- Time Pressure — 44% responded “Every day.”
- Responsible for Others’ Health and Safety — 46% responded “Very high responsibility.”
- Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 33% responded “Very important results.”
- Frequency of Decision Making — 59% responded “Every day.”
- Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — 44% responded “Very important.”
- Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 36% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
- Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 31% responded “Moderate responsibility.”
- Level of Competition — 29% responded “Moderately competitive.”
- Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 40% responded “Every day.”
- Freedom to Make Decisions — 28% responded “Some freedom.”
- Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 39% responded “Every day.”
|Title||Job Zone One: Little or No Preparation Needed|
|Education||Some of these occupations may require a high school diploma or GED certificate.|
|Related Experience||Little or no previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, a person can become a waiter or waitress even if he/she has never worked before.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few days to a few months of training. Usually, an experienced worker could show you how to do the job.|
|Job Zone Examples||These occupations involve following instructions and helping others. Examples include food preparation workers, dishwashers, sewing machine operators, landscaping and groundskeeping workers, logging equipment operators, and baristas.|
|SVP Range||(Below 4.0)|
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- Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
- Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
- Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
- Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
- Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
- Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
- Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
- Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
- Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
- Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
- Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
- Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
- Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others’ needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
- Independence — Job requires developing one’s own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
- Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
- Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
- Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
- Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
- Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
- Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
- Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
- Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Wages & Employment Trends
|Median wages (2018)||$10.22 hourly, $21,250 annual|
|Employment (2018)||3,704,000 employees|
|Projected growth (2018-2028)|
Much faster than average (11% or higher)
|Projected job openings (2018-2028)||780,600|
|Top industries (2018)||Accommodation and Food Services|
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2018 wage data
and 2018-2028 employment projections
“Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2018-2028). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.
Sources of Additional Information
Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries.
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